Green catalysis is becoming crucial in every chemical reactions which require reactions more atomic efficient, reducing wastes, saving energies, and mild reaction condition with high activities and selectivities. Such green catalysis can be achieved through the single-site heterogeneous catalysts (SSHC) by the functionalization with the catalytically active species onto nanoporous materials.
Functionalization of nanoporous materials has been obtained through metal incorporation, grafting using tethering group, or direct synthesis with functional groups. Microwave-assisted direct synthesis was proven to help to get highly functionalized nanoporous materials with rapid, energy-efficient, and economical synthesis route. This direct microwave synthesis for the functionalized mesoporous silica could give very unique morphologies and phases with catalytically functionalized active sites so-called single-sites having acid-base properties, redox properties and/or chirality.